Los mandatos informales, informal “tú” commands, can be a bit challenging at first because you must remember to conjugate the verb differently depending on whether the command is affirmative (Yes! Do it! ¡Sí! ¡Hazlo!) or negative (No! Don´t do it! ¡No! ¡No lo hagas!) This cultural presentation will take you on a journey of table manners around the world while practicing affirmative versus negative tú commands.
- Practice conjugating affirmative and negative tú commands
- Practice vocabulary about food & the table
- Make cultural connections about table manners
First, conjugate the verbs in this handout: Modales Internacionales Handout
Next, check your answers and discuss the cultural customs in more detail in this Powerpoint presentation: Modales Internacionales Powerpoint
Share your reflections and what you´ve learned in the questions at the bottom of the handout. Do you think any of these tips for international table manners will come in handy someday?
The images in the presentation were adapted for educational purposes from an infographic & article by Huffingtion Post España.
Also, thank you to the Teaching & Learning Spanish Blog Facebook Page for sharing the Huffington Post article.
If you would like to share these materials, please do so by providing a link to this blog post. Thank you!
After years as a volunteer interpreter in parent-teacher conferences, I would like to share my personal top tips and phrases to effectively encourage communication between teachers and parents who speak another language, specifically Spanish. I have made this into a video (see below) so that teachers with limited or no Spanish proficiency can hear the pronunciation of the phrases.
Tips for working with an interpreter
- Briefly consult with interpreter before meeting with parents. Establish how you can work together to communicate most effectively.
- If working with an interpreter, look at the parent you are speaking to (not at the interpreter).
- Create rapport with the parent. Communication is not only through words. Your eye contact, body language, and intonation can go a long way in communicating with the parent.
- Pause frequently. Speak in sentences, not paragraphs. You must give the interpreter time to interpret! It can be hard to remember to pause once the conversation gets going, so you may want to ask the interpreter beforehand if she would like to use a subtle cue to remind you to pause. For example, the interpreter could lightly tap her finger on the table to signal a pause is needed.
- Avoid jargon. Express the big idea, not terms and unnecessary details.
- Educational systems and jargon vary across cultures. This does not mean to dull down what you are trying to say, but rather to express the meaningful information without using esoteric jargon. Not only is jargon difficult to interpret, but it also may not be meaningful to the parents due to cultural and institutional differences in education systems. If you wish to list skills students need to work on, try showing examples.
- Use visuals, such as samples of student work and visual representations of performance, such as graphs. Interacting with samples of student work can show areas of student success and areas that need progress, even without the help of an interpreter. Also, you may represent grades and performance on standardized tests with graphs or icons.
How to Invite Questions and Dialogue
- Make clear that questions and comments are welcome. For many speakers of other languages (All cultures are diverse. This is a general concept, but each person has their own perspective.), it may be culturally inappropriate to ask teachers questions. Teachers are seen as authority figures and experts, so asking a question may be seen as a criticism or question of their expertise.
Phrases to invite questions in Spanish
- ¿Usted tiene alguna pregunta? Do you have any questions?
- ¿Ustedes tienen alguna pregunta? Do you (all) have any questions? (speaking to more than one person)
- ¿alguna pregunta? any questions?
- Si usted tiene alguna pregunta, por favor no dude en contactarme. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.
- Say this to further invite questions, or provide it in writing along with your contact information.
Ask questions that promote dialogue
In my experience, when teachers ask appropriate (not too personal) questions about the child´s experience in school, parents can really open up and meaningful conversation takes place. Therefore, I have found this to be the most effective strategy for promoting dialogue.
- ¿A Juan (child´s name) le gusta la escuela? Does Juan (child´s name) like school?
- ¿Qué dice Juan (child´s name) de sus clases? What does Juan (child´s name) say about his classes?
- ¿Juan (child´s name) lee en casa? Does Juan (child´s name) read at home?
- When asked this question, numerous parents have shared that although they wish to read with their child at home, they cannot because they do not speak English. Therefore, this question can be a great opportunity to dispel the misconception that one must abandon the first language in order to succeed in the target language. Research dispels this notion, rather demonstrating that reading in the first language is beneficial to learning and success in reading in the target language. You may also take this time to direct parents to where they can find children´s books in their first language. Here are some links to websites with children´s books in Spanish: Zona 33 Preescolar and Garabato. Please share other recommended resources in the comments of this post.
- ¿Juan (child´s name) necesita ayuda con algo? Does Juan (child´s name) need help with anything?
- This question has often prompted a discussion of issues outside of the classroom that teachers should be aware of, including bullying on the bus, death in the family, deportation of family members, and other experiences that are impacting the student´s life and school experience.
Thank you for reading these tips based on my personal experience as a teacher and interpreter.
What has been your experience with this topic? Please leave any questions or your own advice in the comments, as well as any useful resources.
Thank you for sharing.
Here is a video based on this post. You may use it to hear and practice the pronunciation of the Spanish questions and phrases suggested above.
Perhaps use these breathtaking natural landmarks as part of a travel unit? Have students mark them on the map and/or use authentic online travel resources to create a travel plan (plane, train, rental car, bus, hotel, restaurant reservations according to an itinerary calendar, other stops on the route). Just some ideas!
Share in the comments if these images inspired any teaching ideas for you!